Courts & Monitoring Bodies

A number of distinct courts and monitoring bodies oversee States’ implementation of, and compliance with, their specific obligations under international human rights law. These bodies may be judicial (national, regional or international courts), quasi-judicial (bodies that are not courts, but do decide individual complaints), political (led by States), or supervisory (documenting and assessing human rights conditions). Each of these entities has been established either directly by individual States or by groups of States, as members of intergovernmental organizations. For an explanation of the history of these bodies, and the standards they enforce, see the Overview of the Human Rights Framework.

United Nations

At the universal level, the United Nations has established a number of institutions and procedures to monitor human rights in the 193 countries that belong to the UN. These mechanisms include the:

In addition, the International Labour Organization (ILO) creates international standards related to workers’ rights and social justice issues, and supervises their implementation in the ILO’s 185 Member States.

Regional Human Rights Systems

At the regional level, intergovernmental organizations have established regional human rights systems, with widely different mandates, in each of the following regions:

Other Supranational Courts

The international community has also created a variety of other international courts and organizations that are not exclusively focused on international human rights standards, but whose work often addresses human rights concerns.

These include the International Court of Justice, which settles a wide variety of disputes between States, and the following courts that prosecute individuals for violations of international law:

The following courts and tribunals of regional economic communities sometimes also directly or indirectly address human rights concerns:

National Courts & Monitoring Bodies

Additionally, national governments may address human rights conditions and alleged violations through: